Note: The following is an excerpt from the e-book, The Path to GitOps, which outlines Git best practices for GitOps deployment. You can explore more best practices in How to set up your GitOps directory structure.
Your Git workflows are at the center of your GitOps deployments because workflows are the means of implementing your changes in your environment. When you adopt GitOps, Git is not only your source of truth (as it is for most projects) but also your interface into your environment. Developers have used Git workflows for their application delivery method for years, and now operations teams will have to adopt similar workflows.
But there are key differences between how you manage your code in Git and how you manage your GitOps configuration in Git. Here I will go over these differences and describe the best practices you should follow to make the best use of Git workflows for your GitOps deployments. We will see how to separate your configuration from your code, how to use branches, how to use trunk-based development workflows effectively, and tips for setting up policies and security for your Git workflows.
Separate your repositories
There are a few things to keep in mind when setting up your Git workflows for your GitOps directory structure and GitOps in general. The first is to keep your application code in a separate repository from your YAML configurations. This might seem counterintuitive initially, but most teams that start with code and configurations together quickly learn it’s better to separate them.
There are a few reasons for separate repositories. First, you don’t want a configuration change (such as changing the scale of a deployment from three to four nodes) to trigger a rebuild of your application if your application code didn’t change. Another reason is that the approval process of getting a change into an environment shouldn’t hold back continuous integration of your code. In general, application code and configuration information have independent lifecycles.
Also, many organizations separate the deployment process into several different teams. A lot of the time, the operations or release management team takes care of the application’s release. Although DevOps aims to reduce barriers between teams and their activities, you don’t want one team’s process to slow down another.
Separate development in directories, not branches
Another best practice that surprises many programmers is to separate environments–such as test and production–into different directories, but not create branches for them. Like the separation of code and configurations, this principle might seem to go against the grain of version control, but keeping track of environmental branches can be a challenge.
One of the difficulties you might encounter if you manage workflows through branches is that promotion from one environment to another isn’t as simple as a merge. You can see this issue with a simple example of updating an image tag. The application has been built, tested, and deemed ready to go from a sandbox environment to a test environment. But updating the image tag comes with other changes you don’t want to merge. What about the scale in the Deployment? What about the ConfigMaps and Secrets? Those are bound to change in different environments and include things that should not be merged into other environments.
In short, every environment has configuration details specific to that environment. You can manually make the changes one by one or "cherry-pick", but then your "simple merge" is no longer that simple. When you’re constantly cherry-picking or making manual changes, the effort level outweighs the benefits of trying to mirror the application workflows.
Another danger of using branches and cherry-picking your way into production is that this will likely introduce a significant drift. As you get further along in the life of a software project, when it spawns hundreds of environments with dozens upon dozens of applications, you can quickly see how cherry-picking and making manual changes can get out of hand. You can no longer use a simple diff to see the differences between branches, as the differences will be astronomical.
In the world of Kubernetes, the Kustomize patching framework, and the Helm package manager, using branches for environments is an antipattern. Kustomize and Helm make using directories and overlays for your environments easier. Kustomize, in particular, allows you to have a core set of manifests (called a "base" in Kustomize) and store the deltas in directories (called "overlays" in Kustomize). You use these overlays as directories with specific environment configurations in these directories.
So do you use branches at all? Yes, but not in the way you think. With GitOps, trunk-based development has emerged as the development model for your configuration repositories.
The recommended workflow for implementing GitOps with Kubernetes manifests is known as trunk-based development. This method defines one branch as the "trunk" and carries out development on each environment in a different short-lived branch. When development is complete for that environment, the developer creates a pull request for the branch to the trunk. Developers can also create a fork to work on an environment, and then create a branch to merge the fork into the trunk.
Once the proper approvals are done, the pull request (or the branch from the fork) gets merged into the trunk. The branch for that feature is deleted, keeping your branches to a minimum. Trunk-based development trades branches for directories.
You can think of the trunk as a "main" or primary branch. production and prod are popular names for the trunk branch.
Trunk-based development came about to enable continuous integration and continuous delivery by supplying a development model focused on the fast delivery of changes to applications. But this model also works for GitOps repositories because it keeps things simple and more in tune with how Kustomize and Helm work. When you record deltas between environments, you can clearly see what changes will be merged into the trunk. You won’t have to cherry-pick nearly as often, and you’ll have the confidence that what is in your Git repository is what is actually going into your environment. This is what you want in a GitOps workflow.
Pay attention to policies and security
Part of the challenge with trunk-based development is that now there is a single branch where things can go wrong. When relying on Git as your source of truth, it can be quite scary to depend on a single branch for not only your production environment but your organization as a whole. So you need to pay special attention to the features that version control offers for policy management and security to protect your trunk and provide stability to your environment.
When setting up your Git repository policies, use GitHub’s branch protection rules (or the equivalent from other Git providers). Setting branch protection rules provides several benefits, the most important of which is preventing someone from force pushing a change into the trunk (which in turn makes an immediate alteration to your environment). Branch protection also protects the branch from being accidentally or intentionally deleted. There are other advantages to protected branches, but the main takeaway is this: You need to trust what is in Git because it is in charge of managing your environment. Take every precaution that builds trust.
Also, set up rules as to who can perform a merge and when. Make sure that all affected parties in your organization see a proposed merge. For example, perhaps a network change should be approved not only by the system administration team but also by the networking team and the security team. A rule can take the form of a "minimum number of approvals," but that doesn’t limit the number of approvals to the minimum. And while you’ll have multiple approvers, you should allow only a handful of people to actually merge the change.
There is much to discover about Git strategy and Git management. Download The Path to GitOps to explore how GitOps fits in your CI/CD (continuous integration/continuous delivery) pipelines and the various ways to implement it. Discover popular tools like Argo CD and Flux and learn how Kustomize, Helm, and Kubernetes Operators make it easier to deal with lengthy configuration files.
Find even more GitOps resources from Red Hat Developer:
- Getting GitOps: A practical platform with OpenShift, Argo CD, and Tekton helps you put it all together by walking through a common use case from beginning to end.
- Get a preview of GitOps Cookbook, a collection of useful recipes to follow GitOps practices on Kubernetes.